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英国公投_英国第二次脱欧公投

英国公投英国公投

6月23日英国公投结果什么时候公布

问题补充:6月23日英国公投结果什么时候公布
●是6月23日中午左右。最终结果留欧票数1,458.4万,退欧票数1,570.5万 。票数比例51.9%:48.1。至此,英国脱欧成功。

英国举行全民脱欧公投,决定英国在欧盟的去留。是什么意思?

问题补充:英国举行全民脱欧公投,决定英国在欧盟的去留。是什么意思?
●这是英国的内政,别国无权干涉

●英国这次真的要退出
●典型的岛国自私自利行径,企图逃避欧盟年费和移民安置责任。
●说明人家公民有权利

●  作为岛国,英国长期奉行“光辉独立”政策。身处欧洲,却不认为自己属于欧洲。中国现代国际关系研究院副院长冯仲平在接受北京晨报记者采访时分析指出,英国的欧洲认同感很弱。英国人说欧洲是指欧洲大陆,不包括自己这个岛国。  作为地理上的岛国,英国在文化上和欧洲其他大陆国家有区别。历史上英国人一直和欧洲大陆玩平衡,不希望欧洲有大国。回顾历史,1957年六个欧洲国家签订《罗马条约》,十年后欧洲共同体成立,但作为欧洲政治大国的英国却并不在其列。  1973年保守党执政的英国终于加入了欧共体。冯仲平说,当时加入欧盟,不是出于认同欧洲身份,完全是经济上的考虑,为了打入欧洲统一市场。短短两年后,工党政府就因为会费的问题举行第一次“脱欧”公投。  1991年《马斯特里赫特条约》确定创立欧洲单一货币,2002年欧元正式诞生,但是英国坚持保留英镑,拒绝加入欧元区。  英国与欧盟向来保持着一种若即若离的状态,对欧盟的猜忌和不信任一直存在,英国保守党内部也有欧洲怀疑派。而如今欧债危机、难民危机、恐怖主义等新问题层出不穷,影响了英国对欧盟看法和立场的转变,脱欧呼声的背后凸显英国对欧盟的不信任。英国的疑欧之心快速发酵,也加快了脱欧脚步。  英国现任首相卡梅伦起初是抗拒举行公投的要求,但在2013年改变了看法。卡梅伦承诺,如果他赢得预定于2015年举行的大选,会在一年内批准所需法律,制定与欧盟关系的新原则,然后就脱欧问题举行全民公投,让人民有机会选择继续留在或退出欧盟。如果欧盟不采取措施解决核心问题,英国将有可能退出该组织。  2015年5月保守党再次执政,为兑现竞选承诺定于今年6月23日举行“脱欧”公投。这让曾经被认为只是边缘声音的“退出欧盟”主张竟然自1975年以来首次具有了政治上的现实可能性。  很多人在说卡梅伦不应该同意全民公投,因为他自己并不希望英国离开欧盟。实际上2013年选举时,党内对于欧洲问题的压力非常大。因此做出了承诺,保证了很多人没把选票投给要求英国退出欧盟的英国独立党,否则继续执政将面临威胁。出于国内政治考虑让他做出了一个可能让他后悔的决定,但当时也是无奈之举。
  选民将被要求从两个选项中做出选择:英国仍然是欧盟的成员或者离开欧盟。  英国和爱尔兰的公民,以及在国外居住时间少于15年的英国侨民都有资格投票。居住在英国的英联邦居民,比如那些来自加拿大、新西兰、澳大利亚和印度的居民也有投票资格。其他欧盟国家公民则没有资格投票。此外,所有选民都必须18周岁以上。  尽管如此,一些人还是抱怨最终确定的公投时间和英国的格拉斯顿伯里音乐节时间相冲突,还正好遇上2016年欧洲足球锦标赛。  全英共382个地区的投票所将于6月23日格林尼治时间晚上10时结束投票,结果可望在24日中午前揭晓。欧洲理事会主席图斯克表示,若是英国公投决定脱离欧盟,英国与欧盟将需要至少7年时间,才能完成双方关系未来发展的协商谈判。
  伦敦市长约翰逊说,公投是“一生一次的机会,投下真能有所改变的一票”,表态支持英国脱离欧盟。他认为英国脱欧后经济会更好。他将英国脱欧比作一次“越狱”。  支持脱欧的代表人物还包括前保守党大臣派特森、英国独立党党魁法拉吉、司法大臣戈夫。  赢得上一次欧洲议会选举的英国独立党旨在使英国脱离欧盟。该党在上一次英国大选中获得将近400万选票,占13%。一定数量的保守党议员和几位工党议员也支持英国脱欧。  有调查显示,英格兰中部地区是最不喜欢留在欧盟的,有近六成人表示希望脱欧。  亿万富翁哈格里夫斯兰斯认为,英国脱欧将是对英国最大的刺激。这样吸引了英国的民族自豪感。  英国媒体今年在一篇报道中指称英国女王伊丽莎白二世支持英国脱离欧洲联盟,惹恼白金汉宫。王室方面立即作出否认,称女王一直保持政治中立。
  执政的卡梅伦政府希望英国留在一个“改革后的欧盟”。英国的财政大臣奥斯本、商务大臣嘉玮德、内政大臣特丽莎·梅站在卡梅伦一边。反对党工党、苏格兰民族党、威尔士民族党、自由民主党也支持英国留在欧盟。  事实上,年轻选民比起年纪较长者,更可能支持留在欧盟,显示出世代差异。据报道,6月中旬一项研究发现,35岁以下的人有69%想要留在欧盟,55岁以上则有46%的人支持脱欧。  今年5月,包括“卷福”本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇、“海盗女”凯拉·奈特莉、裘德·洛在内的282名英国演员、作家和创意产业名人发表公开信表示,脱欧将重创英国的创意产业。  据英国媒体披露,一旦退出欧盟,英国足球各级联赛将有超过300名球员的职业生涯遇到麻烦。  “留欧”阵营的活动还得到了英国军事领袖、北约前领导人、企业领袖、科学家和环保主义者的支持。英国主要大学校长也联名呼吁留欧。
  公投大幕拉开,留欧派和脱欧派早早就开启了拉票活动。此前的多场民调显示,两大阵营势均力敌,展开拉锯战。公投结果尚未可知,而不论是否脱离欧洲如何,公投本身对欧洲来说,无疑都是一场不小的“地震”。  英国是欧盟预算的净捐助国,2015年贡献178亿英镑,获得49亿英镑预算回扣和44亿英镑补贴。脱欧派认为脱欧后,原交给欧盟的经费可更高效地用于别处。欧盟失业率在10%以上,几乎是英国的两倍。脱欧派认为,减去欧盟劳动法律条文的限制,英国可以创造更多就业岗位。  欧盟成员国政府对本国教育负责,欧盟会推动各国教育合作。脱欧派指出来自欧盟的研发经费比例过少,且希望自主制定移民政策。  在产业领域,欧盟实行共同农业政策和共同渔业政策,为农户提供补贴,限定鱼类打捞数量。脱欧派认为共同农业政策经费抬高,渔业政策沉重打击了该国渔业发展。  脱欧派同时担心英国的主权问题,不满于欧盟制定英国法律,并认为欧盟不仅干涉了成员国国防采购,还计划建立自己的军队。一些声音指出,一个独立的英国将在国际舞台上发挥更强的影响力。  最焦点的问题是恐袭和移民问题。巴黎和布鲁塞尔恐袭使欧洲安保成为争论的焦点。虽然英国不在申根区内,但欧盟民众有权在成员国内自由流动,脱欧派认为这将为恐怖分子提供便捷。同时,英政府目标是将每年移民数控制在10万以内。但作为欧盟成员国的英国,无法严苛控制移民数量,所以净移民实际数量超过了30万,这为脱欧派所诟病。
  公投结果即使是留欧,公投这件事本身也会对欧盟形成巨大压力。欧盟危机缠身,债务危机、经济增长危机、难民危机以及与俄罗斯的紧张关系,现在连被动应对危机的底气都不足,想满足脱欧派的需求比较难。  对英国来说,最大难题是以后怎么和欧盟相处。英美关系也会受到影响。英国当然认为离开欧洲后,和美国的关系还很重要,但美国会否开始怀疑英国的重要性?在欧洲,德国最重要,但从忠诚度看,美国认为英国大于德国,更大于法国。但美国希望最好的朋友能在欧盟发挥作用,如果离开了欧盟,关系就打了折扣。  英国脱欧,欧盟在经济上就失去了全球第五大经济体,是沉重打击。英国是欧盟外交的重要支柱,英国是联合国常任理事国,是核大国,这两个因素对欧盟在世界上的影响和作用特别重要。欧盟是英国在政治上背靠的大树,离开了欧盟的英国成为“孤家寡人”。
  法国总统奥朗德将卡梅伦称为“欧洲的捣蛋者”,德国议长更是批评英国此举旨在“讹诈”欧洲。作为英国最亲近的盟友,美国也加入批评的行列,不希望英国退出欧盟。  近日,美国总统奥巴马对英国“退欧”公投发出了严厉警告。称如果公投结果赞成离开欧盟,那么英国就要“从头排队”同美国签署贸易协议。奥巴马同卡梅伦在唐宁街首相官邸发表演讲时说,如果6月23日的公投结果是退出欧盟28国,那么英国未来在“安全、影响力、繁荣”上均将大打折扣。  金融大鳄乔治-索罗斯6月20日警告称,如果英国公投脱欧,将会引发“黑色星期五”,英镑将大量遭抛售并贬值超过20%、英国家庭年收入锐减,大多数选民将变得更穷。  在欧洲尤其是英国持有巨额资产的李嘉诚表示,一旦英国脱欧,肯定要缩小对英投资规模。
  “让卡梅伦没有预料的是欧洲突如其来的难民危机,影响如此之大。英国的脱欧派因此得了一张至关重要的牌。”脱欧派相信脱欧可以解决难民问题造成的安全威胁。  “由于脱欧派有效利用了难民问题,使得民调出现了反超,这是卡梅伦始料未及的。”现在欧洲的德、法也都特别震惊,没想到脱欧派的民调会超过留欧派。  英国的民调和真正投票还是有差距,选民投票还是会慎重。留在欧洲的可能性比较大,票数可能是非常胶着,微弱一点优势。  若今天开始的公投最终决定脱欧,英国将花多久离开欧盟?欧洲理事会主席图斯克此前表示,这一过程大概需要至少7年时间,才能完成双方关系未来发展的协商谈判。
  有中国资金支持的英国品牌和企业可以排一个很长的名单。英国也已经成为中国在欧洲第二大热衷的投资市场,仅次于意大利。有报道称,很多投资者担心,一旦英国脱欧,这些经济联系就会受到破坏,并阻碍了从英国进入欧洲的经营通道。

●就是是否留在欧盟的投票。
●英国公民投票决定是不是继续留在欧盟里面
●英国现在属于欧盟,将来按照多数人的想法是留在欧盟还是离开

●就是确定英国要不要再继续留在欧盟。
●决定是不是留在欧盟

英国公投脱欧对中国五金行业影响有哪些

●短期看会有不利影响,但是请看如下观点:欧洲议会拒绝承认中国的市场经济地位,如果英国退欧,英国就不用遵守欧盟的决议,会灵活的承认中国的市场经济地位,将扩大和中国的贸易往来,对中国有利,对英国有利。英国退欧,西方国家,美国、日本、欧洲,尤其是欧洲将向市场注入前所未有的流动性,将极度宽松货币,避免发生危机。中国应当抓住西方国家这次大宽松的机会,乘机逐渐回收流动性,提前上岸,让中国房地产等泡沫顺利着陆,也就是自次贷危机以来,中国可以利用这几次机会摆脱全球危机后遗症的困扰。一个分裂的欧洲,对中国是好事,否则在法国和德国偏见中,欧洲将对中国统一戴上有色眼镜;一个分裂的欧洲,将有利于中国各个突破,在政治、经济方面都取得突围。

英国”脱欧”公投结果将影响哪些国家的经济

●英国退欧,指的是退出欧洲政治、经济共同体这个欧盟组织,并不是退出欧洲。  这里的”欧”,指的是欧洲联盟,简称欧盟(EU),总部设在比利时首都布鲁塞尔(Brussel),是由欧洲共同体发展而来的。

英国脱欧公投失利,唯一受益的国家是谁

●英国呗,现在是法德领导的欧盟和英美以及俄罗斯三足鼎立,世界势力基本就这样了,美国现在只能支持英国来对抗欧洲独立

最近表弟准备留学去英国,想报一个雅思培训班,培训班如何选?

问题补充:表弟准备留学去英国,想报一个雅思培训班,培训班如何选?
●个人之前也报过托业的学习班,后来上班了没时间就改报了必克英语这种电话口语,感觉时间和效率协调的非常好,你可以参考一下
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求教英国小吃 炸鱼土豆条(fish and chips)的做法?

问题补充:求教英国小吃 炸鱼土豆条(fish and chips)的做法?
●材料: 鱼肉,花生油,精盐,味精,料酒,发面(蒸馒头用的)。面粉,碱水。 做法: 先将鱼肉切成长4厘米,宽厚各1厘米的条,用精盐、味精,料酒,葱、姜拌腌,将发面50克先用少许温水匀开,再加清水150克,面粉250克搅拌成糊静置发酵3小时,使用前加入适量花生油,及碱水拌匀。将糊倒入鱼肉条拌匀。坐锅花生油烧至四五成热,用筷子夹鱼条逐个放入锅内,待糊胀起,鱼条定型后捞出。再把油烧至八成热,将炸过的鱼条全部冲炸一下,呈黄色捞出即可。可撒花椒盐食用,也可蘸番茄酱或调味食用。 ———— 烹饪方法: 1.将削去皮的土豆切成0.5厘米厚立方,4厘米长的方条(也可以切成蒜瓣形),用清水洗净,用漏勺控干水分。 2.炒锅上火,放入植物油烧热,待至烟将要冒烟时,将土豆条放入,在旺火上炸,炸到土豆发硬时,移至微火慢慢炸,直至炸透。当土豆快熟时,再移旺发炸熟、呈金黄色。捞出,控干油,撒匀盐,即成。 3.可将土豆条放入锅内,加水和少许盐煮到七、八成熟后,倒入漏勺,控去水分,再用油炸成金黄色。

中国日本和英国的饮料介绍英文版

问题补充:中国日本和英国的饮料介绍英文版
●英文版简介:The Invisible ManReal Name: Griffin (no first name is given in the original story, but see comments)Identity/Class: Human mutateOccupation: ScientistAffiliations: Thomas MarvelEnemies: Teddy Henfrey, Dr.Kemp, Bobby Jaffers, Colonel AdyeKnown Relatives: Unnamed fatherAliases: The Voice, Invisible Man the First, the UnseenBase of Operations: SussexFirst Appearance: The Invisible Man (novel, 1897)Powers/Abilities: Permanently invisible, although this didn't extend to his clothing, so that if he wanted to make use of his abilities, he had to do so naked. Likewise any food ingested remains visible, at least until properly digested. He is also extremely strong, though it is unclear as to whether this is a side-effect of the invisibility process, or a result of his growing madness.History: Born an albino, John Griffin was a scientist, a graduate of University College who had won a medal for chemistry. However he became fascinated by physics, and in particular light and optical density, and at the age of twenty-two he dropped medicine to concentrate on these new obsessions. He went to work for Professor Oliver at Chesilstowe College, a provincial establishment, all the while working at night on his theories. After six years he eventually figured a method which would allow him "to lower the refractive index of a substance, solid or liquid, to that of air" "without changing any other property of matter". He realised he could apply it to human tissue to turn the red colouring in blood white, without affecting its function – and since this would leave the only colouration in the body the skin pigmentation (which he personally lacked), he now had the means to become invisible. Deciding he could never finish his work with both his professor and students eating up his time, he moved to London and took up residence in Great Portland Street. After three more years his funds had run out, so he stole more money from his own father – but the money didn't belong to his parent, who shot himself in shame.Believing his process finally perfected, Griffin tested it on a cat, turning all but its eyes transparent. Next he used the process on himself, and when his landlord proved too inquisitive, Griffin set fire to the house and fled into the night. Griffin swiftly his change was irreversible. Disguising his affliction with bandages, he moved to Iping, a small village in Sussex, where he took up residence in Mrs.Hall's boarding house. When money ran short, he used his powers to turn to burglary again, which attracted the attention of local police officer Mr.Bobby Jaffers. Confronted in the Coach and Horses public house, a scuffle ensued, during which his secret was uncovered (quite literally). Griffin fled into the night.Naked and hunted, he enlisted the aid of tramp Mr.Thomas Marvel, who he sent to retrieve clothes and his notebooks. When some of the villagers attempted to detain Marvel, the Invisible Man displayed a violent side, coming to his ally's aid with an unmatched fury. Afterwards he berated Marvel, making it clear that if Marvel failed him again, or attempted to flee, then he would die. In spite of this dire warning, Marvel did eventually flee, realising the Invisible Man's psychosis was growing. The Invisible Man soon caught up with Marvel in the town of Port Burdock, and beat him within an inch of his life before witnesses intervened, one of whom managed to shoot Griffin, winging him.The wounded Invisible Man stumbled into the house of Dr.Kemp, who by chance he knew as a fellow alumni of University College. He appealed to Kemp for aid, who acquiesced. However it soon became clear to Kemp that Griffin was becoming increasingly insane. He told Kemp of his origins, and his plan to use his invisibility to engage in a "Reign of Terror", using fear of his unseen approach and the threat of invisible murder to take control of a town of his choice. But Kemp had sent a message to Colonel Adye, the chief of the Burdock police, who arrived in time to save Kemp from murder at the hands of his guest. Kemp told Adye how to hunt his prey, with dogs and with powdered glass on the roads to cut his feet. Hunted and pursued, the fugitive apparently committed his first deliberate murder, slaying Mr. Wicksteed on the edge of a gravel pit.Emboldened by this, Griffin sent a letter to Kemp, declaring himself the new ruler of the area, Invisible Man the First, and stating that he would make an example of Kemp by killing him to prove that none could stand against him. Even though the police immediately put Kemp under guard, the Invisible Man got passed them, murdering Adye with his own revolver in the process. Kemp fled the house, with Griffin in close pursuit. The tables turned when Kemp ran into a group of navvies, who managed to trap their unseen opponent, and beat him to death. With his demise, Griffin once again became visible.Comments: Created by H.G.Wells.The Invisible Man described himself thus to Dr.Kemp, while attempting to jog his fellow student's memory – “Griffin,” answered the Voice—“a younger student, almost an albino, six feet high, and broad, with a pink and white face and red eyes—who won the medal for chemistry.”H.G.Wells' Invisible Man has become one of the standard "monsters" of Hollywood, and inspired a slew of imitators. He first made it into film with the 1933, when Claude Rains played "Jack Griffin" in Universal Studios production of the book. In 1940 Vincent Price played the second Invisible Man, Geoffrey Radcliffe, in the sequel "The Invisible Man Returns". Radcliffe was turned invisible by "Frank Griffin", the heretofore unmentioned brother of the original scientist. 1951 saw the third in Universal's series, when detectives Bud Alexander and Lou Francis (comedians Abbot and Costello) give an invisibility injection to boxer Tommy Nelson (Arthur Franz) who has been wrongly accused of murder, "Abbot and Costello Meet The Invisible Man" (the comedy duo had briefly encountered the Vincent Price Invisible Man at the end of their 1948 feature, "Abbot and Costello Meet Frankenstein", when he made a cameo "appearance").In 1984 the BBC made a six part serial adapting the story, with Pip Donaghy as Griffin. The same year a Russian adaption, "Chelovek-nevidimka", was also released. In 1998 it was Kyle MacLachlan's turn in the part (again given the full name Jack Griffin), in a U.S. TV movie version of Well's tale. There have also been innumerable other Invisible Men, inspired by this tale, but not directly connected to him (see the clarifications for some examples).The character was recently revived as a member of Alan Moore's League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, and made it into the movie adaption of same. The comic version is the same Griffin from the novel, who faked his death by putting another through the process, then sending this unwitting dupe to meet the mob. The movie version is a thief who stole Griffin's formula.In comics, Acclaim released "Classics Illustrated: The Invisible Man" in 1997, and in 2002 Moonstone Publishing released a sequel, "Legacy of the Invisible Man". Griffin was also name-checked in Dark Horse Comics' "Van Helsing: From Beneath the Rue Morgue", a tie-in with the Van Helsing movie, where the monster hunter discovers that Dr.Moreau has been experimenting on his beast men using Griffin's invisibility notes.CLARIFICATIONS: He is meant to be the same character asThe Invisible Man of the League of Extraordinary Gentlemenbut should not to be confused withInvisible Man, Daniel WestinInvisible Man, Darien FawkesGemini Man, invisible secret agentThe Hollow Man, another invisible scientist who went psychoticany other many other "Invisible" people主人公简介:The Invisible Man is not to be confused with Invisible Man, which is an entirely different book. The Invisible Man was written by H. G. Wells, not to be confused with Orson Wells who is an entirely different person.Anyone who has only seen the movie and not actually read the book does not realize that the Invisible man has albinism. The lead character, a physicist by the name of Griffon, describes himself as having white hair and red eyes. Yet, for some reason, in the same breath he describes himself as almost albino. Could our mad scientist be in denial?Albinism plays a key role in this book. Griffon has discovered that the only things he can turn invisible are things without pigment. He manages to transform a white piece of cloth, a white pillow, a white cat (except for its eyes), and himself. Pigment and melanin, because of its very nature could not be made devoid of its color properties. Once finding out how to render blood transparent, Griffon finds it easy to make everything else in the body vanish.Griffon, experimenting on himself has neglected to think about how he was going to return to normal. He eventually becomes a pitiful haunted creature, on the run lest he be captured and made into a circus freak. He is unable to wear cloths (he would be seen), has to steal food and money and becomes unable or unwilling to control his rages. He winds up at the house of an old friend with the last name of Kemp, who, although the book does not use the word, (albino) also has albinistic characteristics. Griffon winds up chasing his friend Kemp with the intent to kill him.So. Here is the scene at the end of the book. These two people with albinism are running down a road. One visible and able to live a normal life, one invisible: one raging and fearless, one fearful: one pursuing, one pursued: one clothed, one naked: one loved and respected in the community, one feared and hunted by everyone, you get the picture.Griffon dies at the end. For some unexplained reason he begins to re-appear upon his death.There are several glaring discrepancies and overlooked things in the book, such as: Why didn’t he make invisible cloths out of the invisible cloth? But we can forgive Mr. Wells. He has, after all, written some of the best known si-fi stories of all time.I find it interesting that the lead character is named Griffon. I’m sure it has some meaning. A griffon is a hybrid animal part lion and part eagle. Perhaps this is a symbol of the dual nature of man. The lion and eagle (cat and bird) are natural enemies. You would think they would not get along very well. But in the case of a griffon you have a unique combo creature that has to learn to deal with its dual and contrary nature.Read the book ant tell me what your thoughts may be.投一票

英国女皇bloody mary的英文介绍

问题补充:英国女皇bloody mary的英文介绍
●Queen "Bloody" Mary The ebb and flow of freedom continued through the 1540's…and into the 1550's. After King Henry VIII, King Edward VI took the throne, and after his death, the reign of Queen “Bloody” Mary was the next obstacle to the printing of the Bible in English. She was possessed in her quest to return England to the Roman Church. In 1555, John "Thomas Matthew" Rogers and Thomas Cranmer were both burned at the stake. Mary went on to burn reformers at the stake by the hundreds for the "crime" of being a Protestant. This era was known as the Marian Exile, and the refugees fled from England with little hope of ever seeing their home or friends again.Queen Mary I of England was born February 18, 1516, the daughter of King Henry VIII and his first of six wives, Catherine of Aragon. Mary was the only child from that union to survive infancy. She reigned as Queen of England from July 19, 1553 until her death on November 17, 1558.The Early Years of Queen Mary IQueen Mary I was alienated from her father, King Henry VIII, during his divorce (it was not a divorce in the modern sense, but an annulment) from her mother. As her parents' marriage was deemed null and void, Mary was then deemed illegitimate and thus deprived for a time of her status as an heir to the throne. This fueled her rage regarding her father’s break from the Roman Catholic Church, which had previously instructed him that he could not divorce from her mother. Mary felt that if her father, King Henry VIII, had obeyed the Roman Catholic Church, she would not be seen as “illegitimate, and her right to the throne would not have been questioned. This is the foundation upon which her loyalty to Rome was laid. By the time of King Henry VIII’s death, however, she had been restored as second in line to the throne, after her half-brother Edward, who was physically weak. Queen Mary I Takes the Throne of EnglandIt was not until 1553 that Edward died, however, by which time Protestantism had gained such ground that a rival claimant to the throne was put forward, Mary's cousin Lady Jane Grey. Public sympathy remained with Mary, and she soon overcame resistance to her accession. By July 19 Jane Grey had been deposed and Mary was the undisputed Queen. Her official coronation came on November 30, 1553 . Mary first began to earn her unofficial title of “Bloody Mary” when she had her cousin, Lady Jane Grey, executed to prevent any possible power struggle. It is generally believed that Mary might have spared Jane's life if it had not been for the intervention of the Spanish diplomats who conditioned Mary's marriage to their king on her executing Jane. “Bloody Mary”… Relentless Papist and Mass-MurdererMary had always rejected and resented the break with Rome that her father had instituted and his subsequent establishment of the Anglican Church that had flowed from her half-brother's protestantism, and now she tried to turn England back to Roman Catholicism. This effort was carried out by force, and hundreds of Protestant leaders were executed. The first was John Rogers (a.k.a. “Thomas Matthews”), the printer of the “Matthews-Tyndale Bible”. His execution was followed by the execution of former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, who was primarily responsible for the printing of the “Great Bible”. Hundreds more would follow in Mary’s bloody reign of terror. This earned the queen the title of “Bloody Mary”.Her restoration of Catholicism was remarkable in some ways: Where only one bishop, John Fisher of Rochester, had resisted King Henry VIII’s rejection of Roman catholicism to the point that Henry had him executed; most of Mary's bishops were more loyal and refused to conform to the restored Protestantism under Elizabeth I, and they died under house arrest. Mary’s Failure and DeathMary's allegiance to Roman Catholicism inspired her to institute social reforms, but these were largely unsuccessful. Her marriage to Philip II of Spain, in 1554, was unpopular even with her Catholic subjects. Philip spent very little time with Mary, once he realized that she was not able to bear a child. Mary died at the age of 42 from uterine or ovarian cancer. She was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I, who quickly undid many of Mary's changes, and returned England to its former Protestant-friendly environment. This enabled the English refugees who had fled England to ever-neutral Geneva, Switzerland to print the “Geneva Bible”, to eventually come home and begin printing the Protestant Geneva Bible in England. Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary… Mary I of England is often confused with her cousin “Mary, Queen of Scots”, who lived at the same time. Many scholars trace the nursery rhyme "Mary, Mary, quite contrary… how does your garden grow… with silver bells and cockle shells and pretty maids all in a row" to Mary’s unpopular attempts to bring Roman Catholicism back to England, identifying the "cockle shells", for example, with the symbol of pilgrimage to the Catholic Shrine of St. James in Spain and the "pretty maids all in a row" with Catholic nuns.

求英国迷你宠物猪的英文介绍?

问题补充:求英国迷你宠物猪的英文介绍?

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